July 5, 2022

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Francisco Bolognese: The first monument to the hero of Arika was erected in the early 20th century | Flag Day | Pacific War | Bolognese Square | Arika nnsp war | Archive-Elcomarcio

After the Battle of Arica, on June 7, 1880, it ended with the sacrifice of the Colonel , Congress of the Republic appointed by law to the Municipality of Lima to erect a monument in a square with the name of a Pacific War veteran. It was an act of sacrifice for the country by a great soldier named Bolognese.

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For this, a meeting International competition in 1899Some for that 150 projects Artists from different nations, mainly Spanish, French and Italian.

The selected one is the project of a Spanish sculptor (1860-1909), creator of many public monuments. Author Carol He thus acquired the right to sculpt the first monument Arika’s hero.

The first monument to Francisco Bolognese was created by Catalan sculptor Augustine Crowlin. (Photo: GEC History Archive)

On land provided by the government Municipality of Lima In mParama 1901Kept by municipal officials The first stone of the square A day after the national holiday celebrations 1902This \ it \ he July 29 That year. It is located at the beautiful end Columbus style.

By then the sculpture was practically finished, but due to bureaucratic restrictions it began to come to Peru in January 1905 in volumes. Here in Lima, the monument was assembled in the new plaza until weeks before the uprising.

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For the opening ceremony, the November 5, 1905Government Jose Bardot Thought to call a historical figure from time immemorial Pacific War (1879-1883); No doubt someone who met the Colonel in person Francisco Bolognese.

General Rock Sans Pena, a lawyer, soldier and diplomat, shared with the hero at the age of 28 the burning moments of Mount Arica in southern Peru.

Visit of a friend from Bolognese

Given by Peru Sans pen Degree Army Brigadier GeneralOr, so it came CalloAfter being summoned months ago by the Chancellor Javier Prado Ugarteche.

In response to his invitation, he agreed to attend the opening ceremony of the famous Argentine Soldier Square and his monument.Boss and friend“Bolognese, he met”When I volunteered for the Peruvian army during the war with Chile”.

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Sans penWho will it be President of your country During 1910 and 1914 (Year of his death), first days November 1905Very well with his wife Rose Gonzalez And his Is RositA. They stayed in an apartment with heated amenities on Old Mineria Street (today) The way of liberation)

Pictures of the visit of the Sáenz Peña family at the opening ceremony of the monument.  (Photo: GEC History Archive)
Pictures of the visit of the Sáenz Peña family at the opening ceremony of the monument. (Photo: GEC History Archive)

Historian Trade He described the amenities of the house. “Defender of Arica”. It was fancy furniture. ”Art Novio”. He will stay there for several weeks after the opening ceremony of the monument.

The Sáenz Peña family spent the final holidays of the year with us and from the days of January 1906. The city of Lima was the guest of the Argentine hero and his family.

Tribute to Francisco Bolognese

The main day was Sunday, November 5, 1905, One day after the birthday of the Hero Colonel. Unfortunately, The Sculptor Kroll Could not be Lima Admire how his work was in the middle of the new square.

However, national and foreign guests, as well as municipal and national government officials, attended Mayor of Lima, Federico Elguera SeminarsOr, and President Jose BardotIn addition to civil and military representatives, respectively.

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They all occupied the main stage along the border New Bolognese Square in Lima. Meanwhile, people, eager to be a part of this historic moment, occupied every inch. Columbus styleNeighboring area of ​​the monument.

On the opening day of the monument to Colonel Bolognese, a crowd filled the Patio Cologne.  (Photo: GEC History Archive)
On the opening day of the monument to Colonel Bolognese, a crowd filled the Patio Cologne. (Photo: GEC History Archive)

Roque Saenz Pena He was dressed as a general in the Peruvian army, and with him, the transparent bronze statue of the Peruvian warrior shining with a stern, sacred and sad gesture was all the rage.

Beyond asking President BrownExpectations were planted in hearing the direct testimony of the observer Battle of Arica. Then, Sans pen, Spoke to a man who had fought side by side with our hero. I was so excited to enjoy this long awaited reunion.

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Colonel Bolognese: One of your captains, from a distant Atlantic country, returns to his barracks called Days to announce your clarified truths. (R). Following the red path of my kernel, following the crimson glow of the Pacific Ocean war storms, I am on the path of my aftermath. (…) ”.

Words Public friend The spirit of the Peruvians who were there penetrated deeply. There were cries, tense smiles and hugs in the silence with a real patriotic feeling.

General Sáenz Peña can be seen opening his statue "Boss and friend" Colonel Bolognese 1905. (Photo: GEC Historical Archive)
General Sans Pena unveils a statue of his “boss and friend” Colonel Bolognese in 1905. (Photo: GEC Historical Archive)

Later, two powerful men opened the monument to that unforgettable day. The President Brown And this General Sans Pena They walked slowly, holding their breath and emotion to see the warrior who fought like a lion on the Peruvian soil 25 years ago in bronze. So it was that square and monument Francisco Bolognese From which a part of the landscape of Lima was formed 1905.

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The Tuesday, November 7Two days later, Roque Saenz Pena And his family were invited Government Palace By the President Bardot Should be honored with a succulent creole feast surrounded by diplomats and military officials.

Panoramic view of the Plaza Bolognese and Pacio Cologne on the day of the dumping ceremony.  (Photo: El Comorcio Historical Archive)
Extensive view of the Plaza Bolognese and the Pacquiao colon on the day of the dumping ceremony. (Photo: El Comorcio Historical Archive)

A monumental change in 1954

The 1905 Statue Lima will receive some criticism from the environment. One of these critics is a writer and intellectual Manuel Gonzalez Prada. Protesters argued that the expression of body position and figure was too busy, sad, and not well reflected.Valor and valorThe action of a bolognese.

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However, for 49 years the monument in Bolognese Square remained untouched. Until the arrival of the military government of Manuel A. OtriaWho expressed his disagreement with the figure from the beginning Bolognese In the square with his name. This way, it will not take much time to take action.

Aerial view of Plaza Bolognese taken on January 18, 1960.  (Photo: El Comorcio Historical Archive)
Aerial view of Plaza Bolognese taken on January 18, 1960. (Photo: El Comorcio Historical Archive) / Trade

The Supreme Command Nº 6-GM, tel June 7, 1951, pointed out in its song a visionary change in relation to the monument, and is a beautiful work of art of the time that expressed the mournful mood of the country.

But by the middle of the century things had changed, it seems – in his vision Manuel Gonzalez Prada– Monument already considered “Defending the Plaza de Arica did not exactly signify the proud and heroic gesture of the great soldier who surrendered his life to the country.”.

More info: Quiñones: The day his body arrived in Las Palmas and the hero was known to have foretold his death | Photos

Government decree was sufficient to change the history of this piece of bronze in the early 20th century. Later, the Cabinet A summoned New public tender, Between natives and foreigners, in order to erect a new statue in a short time. According to the then army, 1905 Monument Not even thatBold approach“Y”Sublime valor”(DS Nº 6-GM).

The 'Flag Day' ceremony took place on June 7, 1962 in Bolognese Square.  (Photo: GEC History Archive)
The ‘Flag Day’ ceremony took place on June 7, 1962 in Bolognese Square. (Photo: GEC History Archive)
/ Trade

New Monument to the National Teacher (1893-1980) The June 7, 1954With consent Audrey’s military rulea, and in Cercado de Lima, we see today every day in the center of the square.

That sculpture from 1905, from the first monument, first expended so much effort. Municipality of LimaWe only know that it is found somewhere today The Original Philip Museum in Calloway.

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