- Cecilia Baria
- BBC News World
Two months later, the President of Chile, Gabriel BorickIt reversed its strategy to deal with a historic problem that so far no government could solve.
Strongly opposed to the deployment of the army in the conflict zones in southern Chile. Mapuche communities Borick made his decision this week to claim the land as part of an ancestral claim. Militarization.
It did so by mandating a “limited” exemption status, which in practice implies authorization for the military to protect roads and highways in the region. Araucania And in neighboring provinces Arako Y Life organismThe focus of the security crisis, which has worsened in recent weeks.
“It is clear that violence on the roads has increased in recent times and we have seen cowardly attacks,” Interior Minister Iskia Chic said Monday night.
“We have also seen extended road closures in the most backward areas of our country increasing the cost of living, jeopardizing free transport and reducing supply chains,” he added. .
That is the result Politically complicatedDuring his presidential campaign, Borick promised that if he came to power, he had no intention of renewing the constitutional emergency, which his predecessor, the right-wing Sebastian Pinera, ordered in October last year. Extensions will be managed until March.
Despite harsh accusations that he betrayed the election promise, moderates argue that this new exception is not a replica of the actions taken by Pinara as it focuses only on protecting public roads. Military operations in indigenous communities.
Project B “
In recent weeks, the 36-year-old president has sought congressional approval “Intermediate level of exception”That’s a new legal formula Allowed the army to be stationed Constitutional exception to protect roads, without seeking state notice.
But the proposal, which did not receive the required votes (and even the full support of his own coalition) was dropped.
In some sections of the Chilean left, the use of the military only to protect public roads is seen as a policy that threatens democracy and the respect for individual liberty.
It was in this context that the government finally decided, in the absence of an interim formula Use this “Plan B”The Armed Forces does not have the power to control people or to go with the police when enforcing judicial orders, but in any case uses the same legal instrument used previously to deal with the security issue.
With the support of citizens eroding and the demands of truck drivers and forest workers to strengthen security in the area, the government took the difficult decision to send security forces.
“It’s a late move, but at least it’s here,” Araucania’s Governor Luciano Rivas said in a statement to local media.
“We waited 50 days to make this decision and we made it in these 50 days 122 attacks“, Consolidated regional power and protected the administration of the previous government.
In a conversation with BBC Mundo, Fernando Pyrigan, a historian and educator at the School of Anthropology at the Catholic University of Chile, argues that part of the Mapuche movement has decided to resort to violence to demand their demands.
“There are two streams. A disruptive path that seeks self-determination outside the state, and seeks autonomy from regional control. The other is the gradual path, which occupies institutional spaces in order to achieve autonomy. “
He points out that the administration of President Borik has “shown more willingness than any other government to create a dialogue, and that political parties that are the architects of the policy of criminalizing pardon continue in their coalition.”
That’s why, “There is A paradox Within the government. “
Political divisions within the coalition have been exposed in cases such as Social Development Minister Janet Vega – the official in charge of Native issues, who publicly opposed the state of emergency and backed the president a few days later.
Or the negotiations in which the Communist Party participated, at first, were against the idea, but finally The queue is over Reluctantly.
Public safety problem
When he came to government, Borik wanted to focus Political ConversationBut then A wave of violenceThe path has become more and more difficult.
So much so that when Minister Cicero visited the area for the first time, he was greeted with gunfire in the air.
The inhabitants of those areas had to deal with constant Roadblocks, burning of lorries, shooting of masked men, seizure of property and police action In communities where poverty is punished, it is a situation where complaints from international organizations about human rights violations are included.
Opinions about who is ultimately responsible for the violence are increasingly polarized, while officials are trying to find a formula that will allow them to reach a basic political consensus to advance their objectives.
According to Claudio Fuentes, an educator at the University of Diego Portals University School of Political Science, President Borik’s decision was made “amid mounting attacks on property.” Public opinion is very sensitive to security issues“.
“This situation has put pressure on the government to come up with stronger answers to the public security concerns not only in La Aragonia but in the country as a whole.”
A public opinion with high expectations, when his administration’s rejection of the vote exceeded 50%, quickly lost patience.
“People want to see results on the public order agenda,” said Marco Moreno, director of government schools at Central University of Chile.
“The government had to be resorted to Tools available Try to restore public order in a more complex area due to the demands of radical groups established in the region.
In recent weeks, the government has stepped up its efforts to address the conflict in the region.
Among them, demand A special lawyer for the area The job is to investigate crimes such as drug trafficking and timber theft, to create the Ministry of Indigenous Peoples, to participate in UN talks with representatives of the Mappuche people, and to provide more resources for land reclamation and public financing.
But the people of Mapuche have no representative, but the task remains difficult as it is organized by different community leaders.
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